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阅读20篇详解第一篇

2019-03-15 660次
Passage 1
Office jobs are among the positions(职位) hardest hit by computation(计算机自动化). Word processors(处理
器) and typists(打字员) will lose about 93,000 jobs over the next few years, while 57,000 secretarial(秘书的) jobs
will vanish(消失). Blame(责备) the PC: Today, many executives(主管) type(打字) their own memos(备忘录) and
carry their ―secretaries(秘书)‖ in the palms(手掌) of their hands. Time is also hard for stock(存货; 股票) clerks(职员), whose ranks(职衔,地位) are expected to(预期) decrease(减少) by 68,000. And employees in
manufacturing(制造) firms(公司) and wholesalers(批发商) are being replaced(代替) with computerized systems.
But not everyone who loses a job will end up(结束) in the unemployment(失业) line. Many will shift to(转移
到) growing positions within their own companies. When new technologies shook up(使震动) the telecomm(电信)
business, telephone operator Judy Dougherty pursued(追求) retraining(再教育). She is now communications(通
讯) technician, earning about $ 64,000 per year. Of course, if you’ve been a tollbooth(过路收费亭) collector for
the past 30 years, and you find yourself replaced(代替)by an E-Z Pass machine, it may be of little consolation(安
慰) to know that the telecomm field is booming(繁荣,迅速发展).
    And that’s just it: The service economy is fading(退色); welcome to the expertise(专门知识) economy. To
succeed in the new job market, you must be able to handle(处理) complex(复杂的) problems. Indeed(的确), all but    one of the 50 highest-paying occupations(职业)—air-traffic controller—demand(要求) at least (至少) a bachelor’s   degree.
    For those with just a high school diploma(文凭), It’s going to get tougher(困难的) to find a well-paying job.
Since fewer factory and clerical(文员的) jobs will be available(可获得的), what’s left will be the jobs that
computation can’t kill: Computers can’t clean offices, or care for(照料) Alzheimer’s patients(老年痴呆病人). But,
since most people have the skills to fill those positions, the wages(薪水) stay painfully(令人痛苦地,非常地) low,
meaning computation could drive(驱赶) an even deeper wedge(楔子) between the rich and poor. The best advice  now: Never stop learning, and keep up with(跟上) new technology.
    For busy adults, of course, that can be tough. The good news is that the very technology that’s reducing(减少)
so many jobs is also making it easier to go back to school—without having to sit in a classroom. So-called Internet  distance(远处; 距离) learning is hot, with more than three million students currently enrolled(招收,入学), and it’sgaining(获得) credibility(可靠性) with employers.
       Are you at risk of(处于„的危险中) losing your job to a computer? Check(检查) the federal Bureau of
Labour(劳动) Statistics’ Occupational Outlook(观点,前景) Handbook, which is available(可获得的)online at bls.gov.
1. From the first paragraph we can infer(推断) that all of the following persons are easily thrown(投,扔) into
unemployment EXCEPT .
A. secretaries B. stock clerks C. managers D. wholesalers
2. In the second paragraph the author mentions(提到) the tollbooth collector to .
A. mean he will get benefits from(从„方面受益) the telecomm field
B. show he is too old to shift to(转移到) a new position
C. console(安慰) him on having been replaced by a machine
D. blame(责备) the PC for his unemployment
3. By saying ―…computation could drive an even deeper wedge(楔子) between the rich and poor‖ (line 5, Para. 4),
the author means
A. people are getting richer and richer
B. there will be a small gap between rich and poor
C. the gap(裂口,差距)between rich and poor is getting larger and larger
D. it’s time to(该做„的时候了) close up the gap between the rich and poor
 
4. What is the author's attitude(态度) towards computers?
A. positive(肯定的) B. negative(否定的) C. neutral(中立的) D. prejudiced(偏见的)
5. Which of the following might serve as(充当) the best title of passage?
A. Blaming the PC
B. The booming(飞速发展的) telecomm field
C. Internet distance(距离,远处) leaning
D. Keeping up with(跟上) computation
词汇注释
vanish[] vi. 突然不见,消失;不复存在,绝迹
blame[] vt. 指责,责怪;(on,onto)把„归咎于
executive[] a. 执行的,行政的 n. 主管,高级行政人员;行政部门
clerk[] n. 店员,办事员,职员
shift[] v./ n. 转移,移动;更换,改变
pursue[] vt. 追赶,追逐;追求,寻求;继续,从事
boom[] vi./n. 激增,繁荣,迅速发展
complex[] a. 复杂的,难懂的;由许多部分组成的,复合的
diploma[] n. 毕业文凭,学位证书,执照
occupation[] n. 工作,职业;消遣;占领
available[] a. 可利用的,在手边的;可取得联系的,可得到的
enroll[] v. 招收,(使)入伍(入学、入会等);登记,注册
credibility[] n. 可靠性,可信性
mention[] vt./n. 提及,提起
benefit from 受益于
console[] vt. 安慰,抚慰
prejudiced[] a. 怀有偏见的,有成见的
全文翻译
办公室工作是受计算机自动化冲击严重的职业之一。在未来的几年中,文字处理员和打字员将失去
大约 93000 个工作岗位,同时 57000 个秘书职位也将消失。这都归咎于计算机:现在,许多主管自己用电
脑制作备忘录并携带“掌上秘书”。存货管理员的日子也不好过,此类职位预计会减少 6800 个。而制造业
的雇员和批发商也正在被计算机自动化系统所取代。
但是,并不是所有失业的人都会就此下岗。许多人将会转向所在公司内部更有发展的职位。当新技术
冲击电信行业时,电话接线员 Judy Dougherty 接受了再培训。现在她是一名年薪约 64000 美元的通讯技术
员。当然,如果你过去 30 年一直在公路收费亭当收费员,却发现自己被电子收费机取代了,那么知道电信
业的欣欣向荣可能就不会带来什么慰藉。
情况就是这样:服务业经济正在衰退,而需要专业知识的经济则受到欢迎。为了在新的职场中取胜,
你必须有能力处理复杂的问题。事实上,50 个薪酬高的职业中除了空中交通管理员外,其他的职位都至
少要求学士学位。
对于那些只有高中文凭的人来说,要想找到一份薪水高的工作将愈加困难。由于工厂和办公室的职位
越来越少,剩下的是计算机自动化应付不了的工作:计算机不能打扫办公室,也不能照顾老年痴呆病人。
但是,由于大多数人都能胜任这样的职位,工资就会非常低,这就意味着计算机自动化会进一步加大贫富
差距。现在的佳忠告是:永远不要停止学习,要跟上新技术的发展。
当然,对繁忙的成年人来说,这可能会有些困难。好消息是,恰恰是这种正在减少众多职位的技术,
也正在使重返学堂变得更加容易一一无须坐在教室就可以学习。所谓的“网络远程教育”现在很热门,目
前已吸引超过 300 万的学生报名参加,并且正在赢得雇主们的信赖。
 
你是否正面临着被计算机夺去工作的危险?阅读一下联邦劳动统计局职业展望手册,这本手册可以在
bls. gov 在线阅读。

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